Lisbon, Portugal – The olive-green army automobiles are the identical, as are the uniforms of the personnel using them. It’s even the identical day of the week on this April 25 – a Thursday.

That is when it began, on the shore of the Tagus River the place the solar hangs like a bulb over the Portuguese capital and Europe’s westernmost edge.

However the cheering crowds beside the street right this moment, waving purple carnations purchased from flower women on Rossio Sq. weren’t there 50 years in the past. No person clapped their palms or posted images on social media together with catchy hashtags.

On that brisk daybreak, the streets had been abandoned whereas Lisbon nonetheless slumbered, whereas a revolt was taking beginning. That morning, Portugal was nonetheless a fascist dictatorship that had fought three brutal wars in Portuguese Guinea, Angola, and Mozambique in its determined bid to maintain management over its African colonies. By the top of the day, Portugal’s 42-year-old dictatorship, Estado Novo (“New State”), had been felled by a swift army takeover.

“We had been skilled troopers, we’d been in wars and had been educated to cope with worrying conditions, however this was one thing fully totally different,” says former navy captain Carlos Almada Contreiras.

Contreiras was among the many 163 army captains who in September 1973 had come collectively in secret at a “particular farmhouse barbeque” to type the clandestine “Motion of Armed Forces” (Movimento das Forcas Armadas, MFA). These had been males who had fought the Portuguese dictatorship’s colonial wars and knew very properly that no army victory was shut at hand; quite the opposite, morale was in decline and an estimated 9,000 Portuguese troopers had died since 1961.

Veterans parade on the streets of Lisbon alongside crowds celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution, throughout which army leaders deposed the previous authoritarian dictatorship, Estado Novo [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

On April 25, 1974, they turned their gaze in direction of Lisbon’s political coronary heart, aspiring to seize management of key army installations, political chambers and broadcasting amenities, in addition to the airport. On the time, 50 years in the past, no person may predict the result of the day.

Nevertheless, the rebels knew that “there was no turning again,” says Contreiras.

It was now life or demise – if the army motion failed, the MFA conspirators would possibly have been charged with excessive treason and fairly probably sentenced to demise. However a victorious consequence would possibly simply deliver a brand new daybreak for a dying empire in its final throes.

Was he afraid? Contreiras takes a deep breath and recollects that morning when his life – and the lives of quite a few others – modified eternally. “I haven’t considered that,” he says. “We needed to act, in any other case we’d proceed to reside on this lifeless political system, maintain combating these meaningless colonial wars.”

Ultimately, and in lower than a day, MFA gained full management over Portugal’s army amenities and introduced an finish to the far-right dictatorship. Prime Minister Marcello Caetano bowed to the conspirators and Portugal’s infamous secret police – PIDE – was dismantled.

The next 12 months, 1975, a US-backed counter-coup in November would supplant the brand new authorities and the Carnation Revolution would come to an finish. However the change it had led to was everlasting.

“The folks of Portugal and thousands and thousands of individuals in our African colonies got their lives again,” says Contreiras.

As Portugal celebrates 50 years of pluralistic democracy right this moment, nonetheless, the lengthy shadows of the nation’s authoritarian previous are creeping again within the wake of the March 2024 elections, by which far-right political social gathering Chega (“Sufficient”) gained 18 p.c of the vote and drove a wedge by way of the guts of the Portuguese two-party system, which had dominated the chambers of energy because the Nineteen Seventies.

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‘We needed to act,’ former navy captain Carlos Almada Contreiras recollects the occasions of April 25, 1974 when he and different senior army figures lastly stood as much as the dictatorship Lisbon [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

A revolution is born

On April 25, 1974, Portugal turned world information. Newspapers around the globe had been drenched in vivid photographs of celebrating Portuguese lots who took to the streets and positioned purple carnations in soldier’s rifle barrels and uniforms. Portugal’s “Carnation Revolution” is usually described as a near-bloodless army takeover. However a lot blood had been spilled within the years main as much as that second.

Within the early Nineteen Sixties, as most African nations fought for and received independence from their European colonisers, Portugal stood agency in its declare to the nation’s African “possessions”. These had been now dubbed “Abroad Territory” as an alternative of “colonies” because of a 1951 rewrite of the structure and the nation had responded to self-determination claims with brutality and repression.

Dictator and Prime Minister Antonio de Oliveira Salazar had established the “Estado Novo” in 1932 – a corporatist state rooted in anti-liberalism and fascism fashioned within the wake of the demise of Portugal’s monarchy – and saved Portugal out of the second world conflict. Regardless of being a brutal dictatorship, Salazar managed to guide Portugal into NATO’s anti-communist membership in 1949 because of its management of the Azores Islands, a significant strategic outpost.

When the primary colonial conflict had erupted in Angola in March 1961, quickly adopted by wars in Portuguese Guinea and Mozambique, Portugal was in a position to supply weaponry – helicopters, fighter plane and petrochemical weapons like napalm – from allied nations, primarily the US, West Germany and France.

Moreover, through the Chilly Warfare, the Azorean army base turned a significant strategic and geopolitical outpost within the mid-Atlantic, significantly for the US, whose continued entry to the army amenities relied on political and financial help to Salazar’s authoritarian rule. The Azorean army amenities turned essential for the US throughout its army operations to assist the Israel forces through the 1973 Arab-Israeli Warfare.

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A veteran joins the crowds on a march down Av da Liberdade on the fiftieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon on April 25, 2024 [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

Lastly, within the mid-Nineteen Sixties, the Portuguese dictatorship began to implode. The colonial wars had lastly introduced Portugal’s financial system to its knees, and enormous numbers of pressured army conscripts had been deserting – a lot to the embarrassment of the federal government – fleeing the nation and turning into vocal proponents of antiwar actions in nations like France, West Germany and Sweden.

As a navy captain, Contreiras patrolled the Atlantic waters between Angola and Sao Tome. He recollects the primary indicators of dissent throughout the military. Inside an authoritarian political system, the very considered rebel was unparalleled. Due to this fact, the primary whispers of change occurred in personal exchanges.

“Warfare fatigue and a eager for democracy lastly caught up with us,” he says. “As a part of the navy, I skilled all conflict fronts, and it was a dwelling hell.”

A revolutionary seed was planted, he believes, and it grew into one thing bigger – one thing irreversible. “The revolution was born out of the phrases we uttered at sea.”

Together with the seemingly endless colonial wars, the Portuguese army had began to ease the way in which for extra fast army rank development and promotions in 1973 by way of a sequence of latest legal guidelines to draw extra males to pursue army careers.

Low-ranking officers who remained on the decrease rungs of the profession ladder regardless of a few years of conflict service noticed this as an existential menace. “We had been each pissed off and nervous concerning the improvement,” Contreiras recollects.

In the summertime of 1973, the “Naval Membership” had been initiated by the 200-odd army captains who had been decided to guard their army careers and refused to be singled out as scapegoats for Portugal’s declining successes in its colonial warfare. The preliminary programme referred to as for “Democracy, Improvement and Decolonisation” and to realize these targets, the clandestine motion realised the one manner was by way of a army overthrow of the Estado Novo.

In September 1973, Chile’s socialist president, Salvador Allende, was overthrown by army leaders in a US-backed coup. The Naval Membership determined to repeat the Chilean coup makers’ use of secret alerts by way of public radio and satisfied a radio journalist, Alvaro Guerra, to hitch the plot. Guerra would problem the “sign” which might begin the army operation by enjoying a selected music on his nightly programme, Limite (“Restrict”).

Contreiras secretly met Guerra “mere days earlier than the revolution” and handed him his final directions. The chosen music – Grandola, Vila Morena by folks singer Jose Afonso – was to be performed shortly after midnight on April 25, 1974, signalling to the MFA to launch its takeover try. “It was properly deliberate, all of it relied on timing,” he recollects.

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A girl promoting carnation flowers through the fiftieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon on April 25, 2024 [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

Return of the far-right?

Fifty years later, Afonso’s music is enjoying at a restaurant on the Avenida da Liberdade as extra 1,000,000 folks take to the road to commemorate the “Carnation Revolution”.

The spectacular turnout of the aged, youth, dad and mom, and their toddlers underlines the significance of the dramatic political occasion – not simply for many who lived by way of it.

Claudia and Lucia, two academics of their 40s, break down and cry whereas consuming espresso at a restaurant earlier than the beginning of the commemoration march alongside Avenida da Liberdade all the way down to Rossio Sq..

They’re crying for his or her dad and mom who survived the dictatorship, explains Claudia.

“It’s so exhausting for them to speak about what it was like through the Estado Novo,” provides Lucia. “Many Portuguese have simply put a lid over the previous, by no means to speak about it once more. For us, the youngsters of the revolution, it’s been exhausting to cope with their ache, not to mention serving to them to maneuver on. That’s why the rise of the far-right in Portugal is such a tough blow – for us and for our dad and mom.”

The commemoration march – throughout which political leaders make speeches and cheer for the revolution whereas crowds of individuals drink beer and “ginja” (a Portuguese liqueur) – is framed by chants: “25 April, all the time! Fascism, by no means once more!”

Nonetheless, on this surroundings of seemingly overwhelming consensus, some have chosen to march in opposition to the human present, in opposition to the wave of quite a few folks. A middle-aged man, seemingly simply strolling by, shakes his head and curses the revolution. No person appears to note him, and his phrases are misplaced within the sea of revolutionary chants.

The person could also be one of many self-titled pacote silencioso (“silent pack”) of whom Portuguese students have been speaking for years, significantly through the previous decade which has been a continuing repetition of monetary crises, government-imposed austerity insurance policies and rising poverty, resulting in an exhaustion of belief amongst some in democratic establishments and Portugal’s dominant events, the Socialist Occasion (PS) and the Social Democratic Occasion (PSD).

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A carnation lies on prime of a newspaper on a bench in Lison throughout celebrations on April 25, 2024 [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

The indicators of dissent are right here to be seen. On a park bench, one other middle-aged man smokes a cigarette and glares on the passing wave of individuals. From a speaker, the hymn of the revolution is performed once more, to which the person screams: “Flip off that piece of shit! No person believes in that anyway!”

On the bench beside him lies a purple carnation on prime of a replica of the sports activities paper A Bola. A girl snaps a photograph of the carnation and the newspaper, excusing herself, assuring the person she is just not about to steal his flower. The person smiles and says: “Don’t fear, there are not any thieves right here. The one thieves are within the Portuguese parliament, stealing from the folks!”

It’s a sentiment that many seem to share. Chega clinched 50 seats in parliament in the identical 12 months that Portugal celebrated 50 years of liberal democracy. In line with an evaluation by social scientist Riccardo Marchi, Chega’s swift rise since its formation in 2019 by Andre Ventura, a former social democrat and tv persona, is rooted in Portugal’s established “two-party system”, dominated by PS and PSD and which turned a longtime political mannequin after the autumn of Estado Novo in 1974.

Marchi writes: “The PS and PSD had been unable to reverse the rising dissatisfaction of enormous sectors of voters with the functioning of Portuguese democracy. This sense of democratic decline was attributed to the elite of the 2 dominant events and is evidenced, for instance, by the regular improve in abstention.”

Chega’s electoral victory has been a minimum of partially attributed to the far-right social gathering’s potential to influence previously reluctant voters to return to the voting sales space and to current itself as an interesting selection for younger adults (primarily males between 18 and 25) with a deep-lying lack of belief in political establishments. For the primary time since 2009, voter turnout reached near 60 p.c, which in keeping with Marchi is a testomony to Chega’s potential to draw younger voters who’re “unaware of the nostalgia for the right-wing dictatorship, and dissatisfied however knowledgeable about politics, primarily by way of the tabloids and social networks”.

This development has overlapped with eroded historic narratives about Portuguese colonialism and the Salazar dictatorship. There’s lingering nostalgia amongst Chega voters for the “stability” and “order” that the Estado Novo provided its residents, students have stated. However the notion that the long run is to be present in an authoritarian previous goes hand-in-hand with a renewed international populist motion of latest years and Chega’s rewritten historic narrative, which incorporates downplaying the dictatorship’s international atrocities whereas outright celebrating it as a functioning state.

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A girl holds a carnation flower throughout a efficiency on the fiftieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon on April 25, 2024 [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

This narrative has even begun to cross the political aisle. In 2019, Lisbon’s socialist mayor, Fernando Medina, underlined Portugal’s historic international identification as “a place to begin for routes to find new worlds, new folks, new concepts”. Portraying Portugal as a constructive historic actor who “found new shores”, Medina turned a blind eye to the brutality and atrocities that went hand in hand with Portuguese colonialism.

Within the conservative press, Chega’s rise is portrayed as “a maturing wine” whereas the Carnation Revolution, in keeping with The European Conservative journal, opened the door to political instability, chaos and “left-wing hegemony”.

Framing its motion as a resurrection of Portuguese dignity and identification has been successful for the Portuguese far-right, in keeping with an evaluation by anthropologist Elsa Peralta: “In right this moment’s total situation of world disaster, former imperial myths and mentalities appear to have gained a second life, typically testifying to a grip on a nostalgic and biased model of the colonial previous,” she writes.

Chega has been in a position to journey this nostalgic wave, lifted by a European discourse rooted in xenophobia, specializing in immigration and populist options to advanced monetary and political dilemmas, observers have stated.

Uprooting the seeds of a revolution

Half a century in the past, Estado Novo’s major pillars of energy had been the police, army and the Catholic church – and tutorial circles. Each of Estado Novo’s dictators, Salazar and Caetano, had been well-educated economists who noticed Portugal’s universities as an extension of the conservative identification of the corporatist state.

In the present day, many Portuguese universities have grow to be ideological battlegrounds between Chega’s far-right coverage and local weather motion teams who’re taking a stand in opposition to fossil fuels-driven capitalism.

The day earlier than the fiftieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution, Matilde Ventura and Jissica Silva from the coed local weather disaster motion group Greve Climatica Estudantil (GCE), are smoking cigarettes in plastic chairs and having fun with the sunshine subsequent to protest tents pitched on the campus of Lisbon’s College of Social and Human Sciences for the previous month.

This can be a group motion with numerous different motion teams at universities in Portugal and different European nations, protesting in opposition to the nation’s dependency on fossil fuels.

In line with Ventura, a political science pupil, the local weather disaster has grow to be an ideal engine for Chega and the social gathering’s far-right agenda which downplays the man-made environmental destruction of the Earth and questions local weather change as a hoax.

“One thing’s altering right here,” she says, squinting her eyes in opposition to the brilliant sunshine.

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‘One thing’s altering right here’. Matilde Ventura and Jissica Silva, seated centre, of Greve Climatica Estudantil (GCE), a pupil local weather disaster motion group at Lisbon College of Social and Human Sciences, says the police stormed their protest encampment final November [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

She recollects the early hours of Monday, November 13, 2023, when the local weather motion teams had determined to occupy the campus floor. That was when police stormed the campus and compelled the coed occupants out of their tents the place they slept. They had been hauled to the police station and saved in custody in a single day. “It was the primary time because the Salazar dictatorship that police crossed the brink right into a college,” she says. “It was a major and symbolic step. The police had been violent in opposition to us, and – don’t neglect – there are numerous Chega supporters among the many police. However we refused to be silent.”

The scholars returned to the college campus the subsequent day, refused to go away, and continued to make their voices heard. The menace in opposition to democracy and the local weather go hand in hand, says Silva, a medical pupil. “The fossil fuels-driven capitalism is the context that embodies all features of the issue,” she provides. “All points – political, monetary, social and environmental – might be traced to the issue with local weather change and its roots in fossil fuels dependency.”

CGE’s campus occupation is critical for each Portugal’s far-right actions and the nation’s monetary oligarchy. Lisbon’s College of Social and Human Sciences was born from the Carnation Revolution, established in 1977 on a website that had beforehand belonged to the army.

Now, the college is about to be eliminated and the previous army barracks it occupies is to be transformed right into a resort advanced. The transferring date is just not set, however the occupying college students of CGE see it as an emblem of political ebb – of uprooting one in all many seeds planted by the revolution.

“The circle is closed,” says Ventura. “It’s been 50 years because the revolution, and the far-right is again. Not solely in parliament but additionally as a drive in opposition to the democratic battle in opposition to the local weather disaster.”

Members of Chega had been there, on the campus, when Ventura and Silva and different college students returned from police custody, they are saying. Chega’s younger political star, 25-year-old former college pupil Rita Matias, entered the campus handy out flyers and denounce the local weather disaster protests.

“Chega was protected by the police,” says Ventura. “However we managed to oust them from the campus and block the doorway by forming a human wall and chanted the identical motto as our dad and mom did after the revolution: ‘25 of April, all the time! Fascism, by no means once more!’”

The incident, she concludes, was a testomony to the perils of Portugal’s far-right momentum: “Portugal’s political and financial leaders do not know how it’s to reside right here. In the event that they did, they wouldn’t waste one other minute by transferring ahead in the identical form and type as right this moment.”

Silva talks of her grandfather, a conflict veteran from the battlefield of Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde). “He typically talks about our shared duty to make issues proper,” she says. “He returned to Africa after the revolution to work with a museum, to recollect the colonial wars and what actually occurred. That’s an inspiration for me.”

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Veterans parade with crowds celebrating them through the fiftieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon on April 25, 2024 [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

A misplaced revolution?

Throughout Lisbon, there are purple carnations painted on murals, displayed on posters, seen in retailers and worn by folks. On an electrical energy pole shut by, somebody has shared a query on a poster for the fiftieth anniversary: “E depois?”(“After which what?”)

Portugal’s Carnation Revolution was “probably the most profound to have taken place in Europe because the Second World Warfare”, writes historian Raquel Varela in her ebook concerning the revolution, A Individuals’s Historical past. However it’s simpler to commemorate the dismantling of a fascist dictatorship and the decolonisation of African colonies than to strategy the demise of the revolution, as a result of following counter-coup on November 25, 1975. As one distinguished worker at Lisbon College, who needs to stay nameless, places it, “We should not solely keep in mind 25 April 1974 but additionally deal with the trauma of 25 November 1975.”

Varela concludes that the explanation the Portuguese coup in 1975 stays a fragile political subject is that it suffocated a social revolution that “was the final European revolution to name into query personal property of the technique of manufacturing”.

Between April 1974 and November 1975, writes Varela, “lots of of hundreds of employees went on strike, lots of of workplaces had been occupied typically for months and maybe virtually 3 million folks took half in demonstrations, occupations and commissions. A terrific many workplaces had been taken over and run by the employees. Land in a lot of southern and central Portugal was taken over by the employees themselves. Ladies received, virtually in a single day, a number of concessions and made large strides in direction of equal pay and equality.”

Portugal’s NATO allies, primarily the US, feared that the previous fascist state would grow to be a socialist state. The White Home, led by President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, acted by way of the US embassy in Lisbon, instructing the American ambassador Frank Carlucci – later secretary of protection – to “vaccinate” Portugal in opposition to the communist illness. America supported an anti-communist army part, the so-called “Group of 9” with each political capital and army tools, in addition to bullying Portugal throughout the NATO neighborhood.

When the “Group of 9” lastly deposed the revolutionary authorities in Lisbon on November 25, 1975, by dispatching 1,000 paratroopers, and clinched energy over the Portuguese authorities, the Carnation Revolution got here to an finish.

The historic aftermath has been dominated by a story based mostly on the notion that the Group of 9 normalised and stabilised Portuguese society by way of a “democratic counter-revolution”. America rewarded Portugal with an enormous financial enhance within the type of a “jumbo mortgage” to combine the Portuguese Armed Forces additional into NATO and liberalise the industries that had been “socialised” through the revolution.

Now, the tiny right-wing social gathering, Centro Democratico e Social – Partido Widespread (CDS-PP), has moved to make November 25, 1975 an annual day of remembrance. The day, CDS-PP states in a submitted legislation proposal, “marked the trail in direction of an irreversibly liberal democracy of the Western mannequin”. This proposal has the backing of Chega whereas PS, the Communist Occasion and the Left Bloc oppose it.

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‘Individuals turned squatters’. Silvandira Costa, 61, was a younger teenager when her household ‘returned’ from then-Guinea, Africa, following independence after the Carnation Revolution [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

‘I’m a refugee, not a returnee’

One focus of consideration for far-right events in Portugal right this moment is immigration. One-third of Portugal’s non-white immigrants reside in poverty.

In Rio de Mouro, a city of fifty,000 inhabitants located 23 kilometres (14 miles) from Lisbon, migrant employees from former Portuguese colonies arrive to sub-let over-priced flats and take low-paid jobs in building, the service sector or season-dependent industries.

Silvandira Costa, a 61-year-old assistant administrator and union activist at Editorial do Ministerio da Educação, a writer of studying supplies, factors to a row of house buildings a five-minute drive from the prepare station. “All these homes had been occupied by returnees after the revolution,” she says. “Individuals had no place to go, nowhere to sleep, in order that they turned squatters.”

Costa can relate to their state of affairs. She was in her early teenagers in 1977 when her household “returned” to Portugal from Guinea-Bissau, the place she was born, within the wake of Guinean independence. “I’m a refugee,” Costa emphasises – she doesn’t see herself as a “returnee”. “I think about myself African. I used to be born in Guinea, I had my first experiences of odor and style of meals and experiencing the soil and the solidarity among the many folks within the village the place I grew up.”

Refugee standing, nonetheless, was by no means granted to 500,000 – 800,000 Portuguese residents who arrived in Portugal within the mid-Nineteen Seventies from the previous colonies. Portugal’s post-revolution governments and the United Nations Excessive Commissioner’s Workplace for Refugees (UNHCR) deemed them “residents of the nation of their vacation spot” and, subsequently, not eligible for refugee standing below the Conference of Refugees of 1951. For Silva, that underlined the sentiment of being a castaway in a brand new society, one to which she arrived with none possessions however the garments she was carrying. “If we weren’t refugees, then what had been we?” she asks out loud. “We left our house in Guinea in a rush, boarded a aircraft and anticipated to cope with the state of affairs in Portugal with none cash, nowhere to remain, no work for our mother and me and my sister had been seemed upon as aliens in school.”

Costa’s mom had left Portugal within the Nineteen Fifties, as a part of an immigration programme below which Portuguese residents – typically poor households and concrete dwellers – had been promised land and a goal on the frontiers of the empire. The colonial conflict in Portuguese Guinea modified every thing. Then the Carnation Revolution ended 500 years of Portuguese presence in Africa.

It was a burden to hold, to be the “bodily illustration of Portuguese colonialism and repression”, says Costa.

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Individuals from Guinea-Bissau protest through the fiftieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon on the twenty fifth of April, 2024 [Fredrik Lerneryd/Al Jazeera]

On the prepare station, she approaches a gaggle of younger Guinean males who’ve gathered on the concrete steps near the prepare station. They communicate in Creole, about life, hardships, the state of affairs in Guinea-Bissau, and the long run.

“The long run?” says one man and laughs. “We discuss Africa – however the one future we’ve received is the world below our ft.”

“Portugal has an unlimited duty to cope with her colonial previous and atrocities in opposition to African folks,” says Costa. “Chega repeats the identical historic mistake because the fascists did by blaming poverty, inflated dwelling prices and social insecurity on immigrants. They’re afraid of the reality, and now they’re attempting to whitewash Portugal’s colonial historical past.”

A closed circle

Again in Lisbon, at Rua da Misericordia, on the second ground of the previous army barracks that was overtaken by the MFA on April 25, 1974, former navy captain Carlos Almada Contreiras appears to be like out over the identical road on which his life irrevocably modified – together with the lives of thousands and thousands of others in Portugal and its colonies.

Now, vacationers stroll out and in of eating places and shops. Autos drive up and down the identical cobblestone road that carried the olive-green army automobiles that early April morning 50 years in the past.

“A lot has modified, but the road stays the identical,” he virtually whispers.

Locked contained in the slim road, continuously sprayed by salty winds from the Atlantic Ocean, Europe’s final social revolution passed off. “It was a revolution for the approaching generations; it’s vital to inform the story in a manner that runs alongside their on a regular basis life, to make them realise what was at stake again in 1974.”

How did it really feel to be a part of the collapse of a colonial empire? Contreiras laughs, ponders the query, after which solutions: “I’ve by no means actually considered it. However positive, that’s what we achieved in the long run.”

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